Take lean beef, 1/2 lb.; cold water, 1/2 cup; a little salt, pepper, mace, or nutmeg. DIRECTIONSCut the beef into small bits1/4 or1/2 inch squaresand see that no particle of fat adheres to it; put into a bottle with the water and cork, placing the bottle in a pan of cold water upon a stove, and as soon as it reaches the boiling-point, move it back, but keep it near the boiling-point for 2 hours; then strain, pressing out the juices, and season with a little salt and a sprinkle of pepper, mace or nutmeg, as preferred by the patient.
2. Beef TeaImproved Flavor, by Broiling.-Take a nice steak and remove all the fat. Have a gridiron, perfectly cleanall particles of burned steak may easily be removed from the bars by placing it in hot water a few minutes when first taken from the fire; then scrape, or what is better, use a stiff brush, kept for this purpose. Have a very nice fire of coals, and place the steak upon the gridiron and broil, as usual, till it is ready to turn; then take off, having at least a qt. bowl with 1 pt. of boiling-hot water in it, and keep it standing by the fire, or on the back part of the stove, to keep it hot. Place the steak, when the first side is nicely broiled, in this bowl of hot water, and press it with the knife and forka stiff spoon is the bestto extract the juices of the meat. Repeat this broiling and pressing several times, turning the steak each time, till all the juices and strength of the steak are extracted; and if, at the last, the steak is cut into squares of an inch or a little more, and each piece pressed in a lemon-squeezer, its virtue, or strength, will all be obtained. It looks much like wine of itself; but still, if a teaspoon or. so of wine is added to what may be taken at any one time, it will not injure the most delicate stomach, but will be borne, even by a delicate stomach, better than bread-water, while of course, is much more nourishing; and, if properly seasoned, as suggested in No. 1, it will be relished by the patient-much more so from the broiling.
3. Essence of Beef.The real essence, or nourishing properties of beef, is obtained the same as directed in No. 1, except that no water is to be put into the bottle, and the boiling may need to be continued an hour or two longer; then the juice or essence pressed out, and a little wine added when desired or needed; also a touch of salt and pepper; or, if mace or nutmeg is preferred, there is no reasonable objection that can be offered against their use.
Remarks. The foregoing are the plans which have been heretofore fol-lowed in extracting the strength or essence from beef for the sick. But as the science of medicine, especially the chemical department thereof, advances, it has been prolific in improvements, among which that of not boiling, but steeping, either in cold water, or using heat only of a moderate degree, or not above 100° to 135°, so as not to cook the albuminous (like white of egg) portions of the meat in making beef tea, or extracting its juice,
4. Beef Tea for the SickNew Process.Beef tea, if rightly made, may be received with benefit by a stomach which would reject any nourishment; but skill in preparing it. is not universal among nurses. The two following receipts may be relied on as among the best that can be devised:
Beef Tea (with moderate warming up after cold steeping).Take 1 lb. of the best beef; cut in thin slices and scrape the meat fine; put with a salt-spoon of salt into 1 pt. of cold water contained in an earthen bowl, and let the mixture stand 2 or 3 hours, stirring it frequently; then place it in the same vessel covered, on the back part of the range or stove, and let it come very gradually to a blood-heat and no more. It has been found that 135° of heat does not set or cook the albumenblood-heat is only 98°. Any higher temperature would injure the nutriment, or nourishing properties; then strain it through a fine sieve or muslin bag, and it is ready for use. The making of beef tea is not a cooking process, but a steeping process. Some chemists think it better to be made without heat, with the addition of the muriatic acid, which is a component part of healthy gastric juice, as follows:
5. Beef and Other Meat Teas Without Heat.—Take 3 lb. of fresh beef, mutton, poultry or game (the lean part only), minced very fine; place it in 14 ozs. of soft cold water (2 or 3 tablespoons less than 1 pt.) to which has been added a pinch or about 18 grs. of table salt, and three or four drops of muriatic acid; stir all with a wooden spoon, (on account of the acid, which rusts iron) and set it aside for 1 hour, stirring it occasionally; then strain it through gauze, or a sieve, and wash the residue left on the sieve by means of 5 additional ozs. of cold soft water, pressing it so that all the soluble matter will be removed from the residue; mix the two strainings and the Extract is ready for use. It should be drunk freely every two or three hours.
Remarks.The properties taken from these last two receipts are largely borne out by a well known article made at Richmond, Va., by Mann. S. Valentine, called ” Valentine’s Preparation of Meat Juice,” which, in using, is not to be heated above 130 degrees F., and that only upon a water-bath to avoid the possibility of over-heatingthe preferable way being to use 4t cold, even with ice when this is desirable. Stale bread is recommended by him to be crumbled into the Meat Juice as a savory diet for the sick, as one becomes able to digest more solid food. This, of course will hold good with any of the above or other juicy foods, or soups, or essences, etc., prepared from any meats whatever. The greatest objection that can be raised against Valentine’s Meat Juice is its east. He claims to have concentrated the strength, or virtues, of 4 lbs. of beef into a 2 oz. bottle which, usually, retails at $1.25, which would certainly prevent its use by the sick poor the sick rich, of course, can indulge it. But from its array of testimonials from the most popular physicians in America and Europe, and by those connected with insane asylums, hospitals, etc., it must have proven an exceedingly valuable preparation; and I will close my remarks upon this subject by saying I have not referred to it for the benefit of the manufacturer (for he knows not of this reference at all), nor am I paid for it, only as it may do good to the people in observing the value of the cold process, as it may be called, of the fast two receipts, and being “posted,” as the saying is, upon the best ways or plans of preparing food for the sick. This Meat Juice was on exhibition and received awards at the International Exhibition in ’76 at Philadelphia, and in ’78 at Paris, and although he does not give its mode of preparation in his circulars, yet this must have been given to the commissioners at these exhibitions, for the awards were:
“For-excellence of the method of its preparation, whereby it more nearly represents fresh meat than any other extract of meat, its freedom from disagree-able taste, its fitness for immediate absorption and the perfection in which it retains its good qualities in warm climates.”
The method is undoubtedly by maceration (softening by steeping), and then by pressure, having used but little water, and leaving a heavy pressure to accomplish the separation of the juices of the meat, to avoid the necessity of heat to condense by evaporation. There is no doubt of the value of this article as a food for the sick, and as only from % to 2 teaspoonfuls of it are required as a dose, or meal, those who can afford to use it will prefer to do it rather than prepare any of the others above given, unless they have a skillful nurse; and,. in that case, I shall have done the good I intended by calling attention to it-See also Beef Water, Broths, etc., below.
8. Oyster Essence.Take % doz. (or any number, according to the ,necessity, or ability of the patient to take the essence) of large, nice oysters, with their share of juice; put in a stew-pan, and place on the stove, or over the fire, and let them simmer slowly, until they smell, or become plump or full3 to 5 minutes according to the heat; then take off, strain and press out the juices without breaking the oysters, and serve hot. Light, stale, bread crumbs, very light, dry biscuit, or crackers, as preferred or convenient, will give additional relish and strength when the patient is able to have them.
Remarks.Most people say, pat in salt,” when they give directions to prepare oysters; but I know it is best not to put in the salt or other seasoning, until just as you are about to remove them from the fire.
7. Chicken Broth.Cut up half of a young chicken, removing the fat and skin; sprinkle a little salt upon it and put it into 2 qts. of cold water and set it over a quick fire; when it comes to a boil, set it back on the stove or range, where it will only simmer. When entirely tender, take out the white parts, letting the rest remain until it is boiled from the bones. Mince the white ‘part and pound it fine hr a mortar or suitable dish; add this to the broth, adding boiling water, if necessary, to make it thin enough to drink readily. Put again in the sauce-pan and boil a few minutes. Some persons will desire a slight addition of salt and a little pepper; but use just as little pepper as will satisfy them, a light sprinkle, however, will hurt no one. It is very nutritious, and hence should be taken only in small quantities. A little rice may be boiled in some of this broth, either for its taste or greater nourishment; and a little stale bread, or a cracker or two, may be broken into some of it at another time, for the same reason, and for changing the flavor also. A little parsley may be added to flavor any of these broths, waters, or drinks, if desired, or any other pot-herbs.
8. Mutton Broth.Take 1g lbs. of chops, from the neck of a lamb or young sheep (old and strong mutton is never to be used for the sick); cut into small bits, removing all the fat possible; put bones, as well as the lean meat, into a stew-pan, with 3 pts. of cold water and a little salt; put where it will stew gently till all scum is removed as it rises. In 30 to 40 minutes some may be poured off for the patient, if he is impatient for it. Continue to stew it slowly an hour or two, seasoning to taste while hot; when cool strain, and when -cold, remove all the tallow or fat from the surface. After this it may be given cold or hot, as suits the patient. A slice of bread, as in the chicken panada, may be toasted nicely and broken into a plate; then pouring on some of this broth, as in that case it is more strengthening, and gives another variety of broth to meet the varying tastes of the sick; or stale bread, without toasting, is generally preferable.
9. Veal Broth.Veal broth is generally made by some chops of veal, as in the mutton broth above, or a joint of veal, with suitable amount of meat upon the joint, in about 3 qts. of water, 2 oz. of rice, a little salt, and a piece or two of mace; stew till the water is about half evaporated.
10. Beef Broth or Water.-Take a piece of perfectly lean steak (from the rump or shoulder is preferable) the size of your hand; cut it into small bits, and put into a stew-pan with 1 pt. of cold water; bring it to a boil and skim; then set it back and simmer 24 to 30 minutes, occasionally pressing each piece with a spoon to obtain the full juice, or strength of the beef. In hot weather any of these broths or drinks will be relished well if ice-cold. by setting upon ice what was not taken hot when first made ; otherwise it is better to re-heat them when called for.
11. Vegetable Broth.Let all the articles named be of medium size only: potatoes, 2; carrot, turnip and onion, 1 each; slice (of course after washing and paring); boil 1 hour in 1 qt. of water, adding more boiling water from time to time to keep the original quantity good. Add a little salt and pepper, and any pot-herbs, as parsley or other herb, as preferred, to flavor; strain, or allow to settle. This is a good’ substitute for the animal broths, when they can not be borne, or at distances from where fresh meats can be obtained; or as an additional variety when sickness is long continued.
12. Milk Porridge, with Raisins.Stir 2 tablespoons of flour with sufficient cold milk to make smooth; then stir this into 1 qt. of boiling milk; break or cut into halves 20 or 30 nice large raisins, and boil 20 minutes. Strain and add a little salt.
13. Oatmeal Porridge, or Gruel: Mix 2 tablespoons of the finely ground oatmeal with a little cold water, then stir it into 1 pt. of boiling water and let it boil 15 to 20 minutes. Add a little salt and sugar, to taste; if desired a small quantity of wine and nutmeg may also be added.
14. Cornmeal Gruel, or Porridge.One of the most common gruels is made with cornmeal and a little flour. Half a cup of cornmeal and 1/2 a tablespoon of flour wet to a- smooth paste, then stirred into 1 qt. of boiling water, and the boiling continued slowly for 30 minutes. Seasoned with salt and a little sugar, makes it the most palatable to most people and some add a little butter; but if any is used it should be a very little, and that of the choicest kind. This is not only nourishing for the sick, but is mildly laxative, and aids the action of carthartic medicine; but if it is intended to aid a cathartic do not use any flour in its make. A bit of cinnamon or nutmeg, as preferred, may be added to any of these gruels or waters. But if any astringent is desired, or a gruel to aid astringent remedies, use one of the two following:
15. Browned Cornmeal Gruel, or Cakes, for Weak Stomachs, and for Summer Complaints of Children. Brown corn the same as you roast coffee; grind it fine in a coffee-mill, and make a gruel as with common cornmeal. Make some into a mush, or batter, and bake, in thin cakes, to a light brown. Very feeble stomachs will retain the gruel; or the cakes, as preferred. See also “Corn Coffee for the Sick.”
16. For Diarrhea of Children, or Others. Parch the corn nicely; grind it into meal, and boil it in skim milk, This is claimed to be a sure cure for summer complaints.
17. Milk and Rice Gruel.-Rice flour, or very finely pulverized rice, 3 table-spoonfuls, wet smoothly with cold milk, and stir into 1 qt, of boiling milk, and stir all. the time it is boiling10 to 15 minutes, or till it tastes done. Nutmeg is a- very nice flavor for this gruel, and a little sugar, if desired. It is very acceptable for children.
18. Tamarind WheyCooling and Laxative.Dr. John King, of Cincinnati, says: “A convenient and cooling laxative is Tamarind Whey, made by boiling oz. of the pulp of the Tamarind in 1 pt. of milk, and straining the product.”
RemarksTamarinds grow on quite large trees, principally in the East and West Indies. They are put up in kegs with syrup for importation; and on being received in the United States are often put up, by wholesale druggists, in bottles for their better preservation as, like other fruits, they keep better in air-tight bottles. I trust their value as a cooling and thirst-allaying fruit may, hereafter, be more fully appreciated, especially in fevers, inflammation and dyspepsia.
20. Wine Whey -Put 1 pt. of sweet milk in a suitable basin upon the stove, and when it comes to a boil, pour into it a gill (about 5 or 6 table-spoonfuls) of wine, and when it has again boiled about 15 minutes, remove from the fire, let it stand a few minutes, but do not stir it; then strain or remove the. curd, and sweeten to taste; flavor with cinnamon, or nutmeg, or any other spice or fruit, as orange or lemon peel, etc. It is used for very weak and feeble patients.
21. Sour Milk Whey: Where wine is not to be had, and a whey is needed, bring a cup of sweet milk to a boil, and add the same amount of sour milk, and the result is a very nice whey. Season or flavor, as desired.
22. If no sour milk, a table-spoonful of good vinegar will do the same-thing if not curdled, by standing a few minutes, stir in a little more vinegar, strain and season to taste.
23. Chicken Water.Take half of a young chicken, divest it of the-skin, remove the feet, and break all the bones. Put into 2 qts. of water and boil for half an hour; strain through muslin, and season with a little salt and pepper, if desired. It quenches the thirst and is quite nourishing for use when the strong teas or essences cannot be borne by the stomach. Straining through muslin removes or absorbs any oil or fat upon the surface, which cannot be-dipped off.
24. Barley Water.-Pearl barley, 1 oz. ; wash in cold water, and pour off; then boil it a few minutes, and pour off again, which removes a certain rank taste; now pour on boiling water, 1 qt.; and boil, in an open dish, until half evaporated; strain and season to the taste of the patient. It is nourishing and pleasant, hot or cold, as desired.
25. Chicken Panada.-Toast a slice of stale bread (bread not less than two days old) to a very nice brown (be careful never to burn bread in toasting for the sick, for scraping off does not remove the burned taste,) and break into a soup plate, pouring over it some chicken broth, boiling hot; cover the plate and let it stand till cold enough to eat, or drink, according to the condition of the patient.
26. Plain Panada.-Split 5 or 6 Boston, or other very light crackers, put into a bowl with a very little salt, nutmeg and sugar to taste; pour boiling water over them and cover till cool; it makes a nourishing drinkand still more nourishing if the patients digestion will allow them to eat the crackers, or a portion of them.
27. Plain Panada, With Bread.Put into a bowl, in small pieces,
1 slice of stale bread (not less than 2 days old), leaving out the crust; put in a small piece of nice butter, and pour upon it % pt. of boiling water. Sweeten, if desired, and flavor also if preferred, with nutmeg and a little wine also, if desired.
28. Corn Coffee, for the Sick, or for a Nauseous Stomach.Take nice, sweet, dry corn (I do not mean sweet corn, but nicely dried field corn); be careful in browning it, not to burn it, as it injures its flavor, as much as it does to over-brown coffee for general use-makes it bitter rather than pleasant. To 1 coffee cup of this ground, as coffee, stir in 1 beaten egg; put into the coffee pot, and pour on boiling water, 1 pt. or a little more; steep and season also as coffee, with cream and sugar. It is nourishing and sufficiently stimulating to allay a nauseous stomach before vomiting has taken place. See also browned corn meal gruel for weak stomachs.
29. Corn Tea.Make the same as the corn coffee above, except not to use the egg. It is pleasant, hot or cold, but not quite as nourishing, lacking the egg; hence adapted to very weak patients (see also the herb teas), but as there will be found patients in every condition of strength, or want of strength, it becomes important that a variety of receipts should be given, and hence the following:
30. Rice Coffee, Especially Nice for Children or Weakly Patients.Brown the rice carefully, as you would the coffee bean, or corn, above; then grind, or mash in a mortar, and to 1 cup of this pour on 1 qt. of boiling water, let it stand 15 minutes; strain if it does not pour off clear. Sweeten all these coffees with loaf or granulated sugar, and used boiled milk with them, as freely as relished. It may be drank as freely as the stomach will bear. Children are very fond of it; and it is better for them, or for weakly persons, than common coffee. The same holds good, also, of the corn preparations above.
31. Common Teas.A rather weak tea (never a strong one) may be made of any of the ordinary green or black teas, when craved by the sick, sweetening and using milk as desired; for we believe it better to allow a mild beverage of this kind to any sick person rather than to allow their minds to worry over a refusal, for all excitement is to be avoided if reasonably possible, for amendment seldom begins, ,nor does it continue long, after any dissatisfaction arises, no matter what the subject, nor how slight the dissatisfaction may be; hence indulge all opinions, or even whims, that have not in themselves an absolute wrong.
33. Negus for the Sick.Barley-water, 1 pt.; wine, %pt.; lemon-juice, 1 table-spoonful; nutmeg and sugar to suit. DIRECTIONSMake the barley-water, as before given; then mix.
Remarks.Nourishing and stimulating., Used by weak patients like Col. Negus, from whom it takes its name.
34. Raw Egg and Milk for Convalescents.A fresh egg; milk, 1 cup; a little port or other wine, and a little sugar. DIRECTIONS Use only the yolk, beating thoroughly; then add the milk, and beat till foamy; then sugar and wine.
Remarks.Have this ready to be taken by convalescents when they feel the least fatigue on returning from exercise.
35. Milk Punch for the Sick. Nice sweet milk, 1/2 pt.; white sugar, 2 table-spoonfuls; best brandy, 2 table-spoonfuls; ice. DirectionsDissolve the sugar in the milk, and add the brandy, stirring well.
Remarks.This punch has maintained the life of very sick persons when nothing else could be taken for several days, or until the natural forces returned to the rescue. Make cold with ice, or keep it on ice.
37. Claret Punch.Claret, 1 bottle; ice-water, as much as wine, sliced lemons, 2; powdered sugar, 1/2 cup. Put the sugar upon the sliced lemons for a few minutes; add the ice-water and stir well for a minute or two, then pour in the wine. Put plenty of ice into each glass as served For the sick come as near to the proportions as practicable, for why should not the sick lime their share of the good things, as well as those who only use them for the enjoyment ? These fixtures are only additions to improve flavor, and make more palatable; hence let the sick have the advantage of them by all means.
38. Currant Shrub for the Siek.A lady writer says: “Make the same as jelly, but boil only ten minutes; then bottle, and cork tightly. Put 2 table-spoonfuls of the shrub (jelly) to 1/2 glass of ice-cold water, and have some bits of ice in it.”
Remarks.This would be pleasant and grateful to the taste, but it is not shrubthat always contains spirits of some kind, to prevent souring; or, for its stimulating effects; see the following:
39. English Shrub, for the Sick.-” One sour’ (lemon juice), “two sweet” (sugar), ” three strong ” (rum, or other spirit), ” four weak (water).
Remarks.The measure might be a tea cup, or a pint measure, as desired, but each article was to be measured in the same dish. For those patients needing any stimulants, I would add as much good whiskey, or Bordeaux, preferably, as is used for the jelly. Any common acid jelly, properly diluted’ with ice-cold water, makes a pleasant drink for fever patients, or those sick from other diseases. Or, any of the following may be used, as needed.
40. Acid Drinks From Raspberry Vinegar Jelly, is Nourishing and Pleasant for Invalids.Take 4 qts. of red raspberries and cover them with good cider vinegar, and let them stand 24 hours; then scald, strain and add sugar, 1 lb., to each pint of the. juice; boil 20 minutes, or until it jells; bottle and cork, or can, air tight, and it will keep well, or is ready for present use. A table-spoonful of this to a glass of ice-cold water, taken a little at a time, makes the patient, if a reasonable one, feel very grateful, when sick, or convalescing. So also does:
41. Toast Water.-Make by nicely browning (not burning in the least) stale bread; then pouring boiling water upon it, and letting it stand upon ice, if you have it, then squeezing in a little lemon juice.
42. Raw Egg Drink for InvalidsStrengthening, Restorative and Pleasant.A fresh, raw egg, being both strengthening and restorative, may be made into a pleasant drink, for the feeble, by breaking a freshly laid egg into a bowl, and beating it well, with 1 or 2 table-spoonfuls of sugar, then adding a little ice-cold water, and a tea to a table-spoonful of spirits, or wine, as prepared, or at hand.
43. Drink for Great Thirst of Fever Patients: Cream of tartar, 1/4 oz.; white sugar, 4 ozs.; confection of orange peel, 3 ozs.; boiling hot water 3 pts.
[Confection of Orange Peel.Take the external rind of nice fresh oranges, separated by rasping (grating), 1 lb. ; white pulverized sugar, 3 lbs. (or in these proportions). DIRECTIONS.Beat the rind in a stone, or wedge-wood mortar, then add the pulverized sugar, and continue the beating till perfectly incorporated together. Keep in cans.]
DIRECTIONS.Pour the hot water upon the other ingredients; when all are dissolved, set aside to cool. When cold drink as freely as the thirst of the patient demands. (See fevers, preventative and cure.Dr. Buchanan.)
Remarks.This confection is tonic, and stomachic, and is principally used as a vehicle for the exhibition of tonic powders, drinks, etc.Cooley’s Cyclopedia.
44. Pectoral Drink.Common barley and stoned raisins of each 2 ozs, licorice root, bruised,1/2 oz.; water, 2 qts. Directions.First boil the barley, then add the raisins and continue the boiling until the water is one-half evaporated, and add the licorice. When, cool strain.
Remarks.Dr. Buchanan, an old English physician, made it the usual drink in all pectoral (chest) difficulties, to be drank freely.